Dec 14

K2 Workflow: Creating sub-processes (aka IPC event)

Have you ever run into a scenario where you found yourself executing a certain number of activities over and over and wished you could have modularized it and wrote it as a separate function, similar to how most of the programming languages do. Well, there is hope in the K2 world and I will try to explain the steps on how to do it. To illustrate it better with an example (this is psuedo code only):

function SubProcess(a, b, c)




    return x, y and z;


The above function SubProcess takes in the input parameters a, b and c. executes two functions DoSomething and DoSomethingAgain and then returns x, y and z.

How does one achieve this in K2? Using an IPC event.

As in any language, the first thing we need to do it create the function. In K2, this is very similar to creating another K2 process, so I won’t dwell too much into it since I am assuming you are already aware of how to create a process. Once the sub-process is created, deploy it to the server so that the main process can reference it.

Go to you main process, drag an IPC event from the toolbox and you will be provided with the option to specify the process name. Click on Browse and this will display a list of processes available. Select the sub-process from this list. Then specify what value to use as the folio number for this sub-process.



You then have the option whether this sub-process is to be executed synchronously or asynchronously. Choose based on your criteria. Then click on Next. You will then come to the “Process Send Field Mappings” wizard screen. This screen basically allows you to map any values that you pass into this sub-process. So in our example, it is a way to specify values for the input parameters for a, b and c. One cool thing that you can use is that if you name your input parameters the same as the parameter names you use in the main process, you can click on Auto-map and the mapping will be automatically done for you (else, you just have to drag and drop the mappings):



Click on Next to go to the “Process Return Field mappings”. This is how we map values from the sub-process to the main process, or in our example, a way to return x,y and z to the main process.



Click Finish and you are done and you can being using this sub-process as many times as you like!

All this is fine and dandy, but what are other benefits of using a sub-process (other than code reuse). To mention a couple:

  • It keeps the main process from becoming too long and makes it more manageable.
  • Even if the code is not being reused, it is helpful to break into separate modules so that it is better to investigate any issues.
  • And the best part, suppose you have to fix anything in the sub-process, you only need to deploy the sub-process and not the main process! So if any workflow was broken in the sub-process, you have to fix this only and the workflow activity will continue from there..

Hope you found this helpful!



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Nov 14

K2 Workflow: Apply HTML formatting on email events

For a novice, it would seem that applying HTML formatting would be straightforward with the HTML option that is provided in the Email event (or Client event) wizard, for ex:


However, when I saw the output, I was stumped. The output was something like this:


Dear XYZ,

Please assign a name for task 123. Use the following link to open the worklist item:

Click to open worklist item


A couple of things in case you haven’t noticed:

1. The Participant name was not in bold.

2. The task text was italicized but not the variable itself. (By now you would have guessed that any formatting is not being applied to variables)

3. There is no option to give an alternate name to the Worklist item link.

So how can we apply formatting to variables and generally speaking, apply HTML formatting as one wants to? Well, there is a way. If you look closely at the format ribbon, there is an option called Load HTML template:


What this allows you to do is apply the actual template as you would have written in a html page. And with this option, you would have to specify everything (for ex: font style, size etc else it will assume default options unlike the previous HTML format option where one could apply formatting changes from the format ribbon.

With this option, you can now do whatever you want, apply formatting to variables, give alternate name to links etc. You can also preview your changes by clicking on the “Preview this message in a new window” link.

You can find more information on K2 site at:

Happy formatting!

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Nov 14

Sharing Views in MVC – A Quick Start with RazorGenerator.Mvc


Recently, on a few different projects the opportunity to share views between web sites has arisen. I looked around and found a few different options but the one that stood out the most to me was the NuGet package RazorGenerator.Mvc. This package allows you to compile views into a separate .dll and use them across multiple MVC web projects. However, I did not run across an easy to follow, complete start up guide. In this write up, I’ll lay out the steps to setup RazorGenerator.Mvc as well as some of the pros and cons to this approach.

All screenshots are from Visual Studio 2013.

Quick Start

Step 1: Create an MVC Web Project
Open Visual Studio and create a new project:

Shared Views

Select MVC, change the authentication to whatever you want (I’m going to do No Auth here) and click OK:

Shared Views

Step 2: Add a Second Web Project for Shared Views
If you read the RazorGenerator.Mvc documentation, it will suggest that you add a class library for this next step. I suggest that you add a second MVC project instead. It will give you the solution structure you need, view type ahead, and additional setup you would need to otherwise do out of the box. Remove all of the folders except for Views. Delete all the excess views and the global.asax file until your solution looks similar to this:

Shared Views

Step 3: Add a Reference to the Shared Views Project
Right-click the references in your MVC project, select add reference, and add a reference to your Shared Views project:

Shared Views

Step 4: Add a Reference to RazorGenerator.Mvc
Right click the Shared View project and select ‘Manage NuGet Packages…’. Search for ‘RazorGenerator.Mvc’ online and click install:

Shared Views

When you do this, you’ll see that a new class – RazorGeneratorMvcStart – was added to the App_Start folder.

Step 5: Create a Shared View
Remove the ‘Index.cshtml’ file from the ‘Views > Home’ folder of your MVC project. Add a new ‘Index.cshtml’ view to the ‘Views > Home’ folder of your Shared Views project. Open up the properties window for this new view and in the ‘Custom Tool’ section enter ‘RazorGenerator’:

Shared Views

When you do this, you’ll see that a new class is generated for the Index view:

Shared Views

If you open up this new class, you’ll see the RazorGenerator creates a file similar to how a text template would – the entire view should be represented in this class. Also, if you look at the PageVirtualPathAttribute, you’ll see the mapping that is created to allow your consuming MVC projects to find the view.

Step 6: Running the Application
Once you’ve completed the above steps, you can run the MVC project. Since there is no home index view in the MVC project, you should successfully see the index page from the Shared Views project.

Overriding a Shared View
What if you have an index view in one of your MVC projects that you want to override the shared view? By default, RazorGenerator.Mvc shared views will always override views of the same path/name in consuming MVC projects. In order to prevent this behavior, you need to change the way in which the RazorGenerator is added to the View Engines. In the RazorGeneratorMvcStart.cs file that was added to the Shared Views project, add the RazorGenerator.Mvc engine to the end of the list instead of the start:

Shared Views

This will allow you to override shared views or partial views in consuming MVC projects.

Potential Issue
If you do decide to add a Class Library instead of a second MVC project for your shared views, and you receive the error message “Could not precompile the file ‘ViewName.cshtml‘. Ensure that a genrator declaration exists in the cshtml file.” after compiling, you need to add a web.config with the proper MVC assembly bindings. This can be done by copying the web.config from your main MVC project.

Another way to tell that this is an issue, is if your ViewName.cshtml file includes the text “Could not precompile the file… Ensure that a generator declaration exists in the cshtml file.”:

Shared Views

Final Thoughts

A good use case for this scenario would be if you had two or more websites that share a lot of common views, such as a single company with multiple brands or internal/external versions of a website. This shared library would allow them to share Views/Partial Views/ViewModels across all brands. However, they would all maintain their own assets (images, etc.) and master layout pages giving each site the ability to create a unique look and feel. While it is possible, I’m a little hesitant about including Controllers in this shared library, but there may be a good use case for it. Javascript files, images, and other non-compiled assets will have to be kept in the MVC projects instead of the shared library. This means that if a shared view depends on a specific javacscript file, each site that uses the view will have to include a copy of the javascript file. However, a post build event or something similar can be used to mitigate this concern.

I’ve included the source code for the sample solution below.

Source Code

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Oct 14

K2 Blackpearl: Using Dynamic Escalation Date

Recently we had a scenario where after the client was notified about an activity, we had to send first notification 1 hr after the initial email was sent out and reminder notifications every 2 hrs.

I defined the data varialbles FirstNotification as 1 and ReminderNotification as 2.

So we used the Dynamic Escalation setting that is available on the Event Escalation wizard,  set the Dynamic Date to Add Hours (Now, FirstNotification). 

And used the “and then after” option to set the reminder notifications at ReminderNotification value.

Escalation Window

Seems pretty straightforward right? I thought so too until I noticed the first notification was not being sent out until 3 hrs after the original email. I dug through the entire wizard, rechecked my variables to make sure I wasn’t doing any additional computation. And this is when I figured out what was going on:

Escalation Notes

Here is the URL if you want to extract more details:

I am not sure why K2 decided to implement it in this fashion, but in order to get it to working as I wanted, I set the Dynamic date to

Add Hours (Now, FirstNotification – Reminder Notification)

If suppose Now is 01/01/2014 8:00 AM

If you look at this, you may think, hey this will compute to Add Hours(Now, 1 -2) which will be 01/01/2014 7:00 AM but if you remember, it sends the first notification after the extension is completed, so if you add 2hrs to this, it will be 01/01/2014 9:00 AM which is what we wanted to begin with.

On your mark, escalate, GO!!!

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Oct 14

K2 Blackpearl: Adding URL links to your email message body

Have you run into a scenario where you have to include a URL in the email and when you use <a href> tag in the email body, the generated email link has weird characters (<span> etc) essentially making the URL link invalid. Here are a couple of ways in order to get it to work:

Assume the URL link to use is{Variable} where {Variable} is a K2 defined value or data field etc.

Saving the URL in a data variable and passing it into the email body

Create a data event and set the source as:<a href=”{Variable}”?Google</a>

If you do not include the a href tags, it will NOT work!

Using the HyperLink inline function

In the email body, you can use the HyperLink function to create URL which will have a href tags automatically built in.

Hyperlink function

The one thing that you must be cautious of is when building the URL as it is in an expression format. So you have to “build” the string and treat any field variables as input variable and append it the expression. For example, the expression for the above URL would be:” & {Variable}

Attempts that won’t work

Prior to coming up with the above solutions, I had to try various permutations and below is a list of things that will not work. Hopefully, you will not make the same mistakes:

  1. Adding the <a href=”{Variable}”?Google</a> directly into the message body:
  2.  Creating a data event but the source is missing the <a href> tag
  3. Using the URL decode: This will return the URL but if you directly reference the URL into the message body, you have the same issue.

Happy linking!

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Oct 14

Three JS Introduction For Non Developers

Three.js Jumpstart

Three.js is a cross-browser compatible JavaScript library for creating 3-D graphics on a web browser. Three.js scripts are used with the HTML5 canvas element, SVG, and WebGL to render graphics. Big data and fully immersive interactive experiences are becoming ever more popular and Three.js is a great way to develop web solutions that are easily accessible by mass amounts of users. The source I will be referencing can be found and fiddled with at: .

This CodePen contains a nice triangular shape that rotates on a styled canvas. This should give you a basic understanding on how to create a scene and manipulate the visuals. From this brief post, you will know the basics of setting up a three.js scene, some great resources, and tips and tricks I wish I had known before I started.

Getting the Ball Rolling

To get started go to and download the Three.js starter zip file, which contains the source and some great example code. The basic elements you need to render a blank scene to canvas are a scene, a camera, and a renderer. Once you set those three elements up you must add the renderer to the Document Object Model (DOM) and render the scene.

/// Set up a scene
var scene = new THREE.Scene();
/// Set up a camera
var camera = new THREE.PerspectiveCamera(80, window.innerWidth/window.innerHeight, 0.1, 1000);
/// Specify zoom level, this is optional.
camera.position.z = 5;
///Create renderer and set the size
var renderer = new THREE.WebGLRenderer({alpha:true});
renderer.setSize(window.innerWidth, window.innerHeight);
/// Add the render to the DOM.
//Recursive call to render the scene
var render = function () {
renderer.render(scene, camera);

Now let us add a shape to the scene. You must define the geometry and material in order to render a shape in a scene. Here is a basic example on how to add a triangle wireframe shape.

var geometry = new THREE.SphereGeometry(3, 3, 3);
var material = new THREE.MeshBasicMaterial({color: 0x3f3f3f, wireframe: true});
var shape = new THREE.Mesh(geometry, material);


That Is It, Go Nuts!

As you can quickly see, Three.js is a very powerful, well-documented library that is easy to learn. The Three.JS library has been in the forefront of creating 3-D graphics on web browsers, and is the best current solution. Setting up a scene, adding a camera, shapes, and rendering is all you need to get a project rolling; it is that easy. Now that you have the basics of three.JS, go nuts and try making your own awesome visualizations and interfaces!


In closing, I mentioned things I wish I had known. A few things were not very clear to me while getting started:

  1. The orientation plane, some positioning/z-index issues:
    By default, the shapes are rendered to the center of the scene, which is laid out on a Cartesian plane. I found that there is an issue with absolute positioning of elements when you layer images, or text, on top of a scene. The z-index property is supposed to apply to elements that are position:absolute, position:fixed, or position:relative. When I had elements that were position:absolute, their z-index properties were being ignored and made layering difficult. Changing them to position:fixed corrected the issue; so if you see anything out of the ordinary with z-index, play with fixed and absolute positioning.
  2. What to do with a scene after you leave the page or view:
    If you are using multiple pages or views on a site that do not include a rendered three.JS scene, you want to make sure that you are removing the scene from the DOM upon leaving the page or view. I was using Backbone to manage my particular site, so I just removed the whole view from the DOM.
  3. Resizing a scene on a browser window resize:
    With the code I have provided here, there is no resizing. There are quite a few references on the web for resizing a scene with a browser resize. Threex does a great job of handling the re-rendering of scenes with browser window resizes. Look at the code; it is easy to digest. It should help you understand how to handle window resizes:

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Oct 14

Hardware Prototyping with Arduino: Sensors

Infrared Proximity Breakout - VCNL4000

I was recently tasked with determining an effective method of detecting the removal of a small product from an enclosed space. This was an excellent opportunity to break out the breadboard and multi-meter to construct three quick sensor prototypes and explore their potential benefits and drawbacks. Here is a summary of the sensors that I explored and my impressions of them.


Continue reading “Hardware Prototyping with Arduino: Sensors” »

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Sep 14

The Apple Watch is Not Bringing the Wearable Revolution (but Apple Will Still Sell Millions of Them)

A short while ago, the tech world waited with baited breath for Apple’s unveiling of this year’s iPhone. Along with that announcement, Apple also gifted the world with Apple Pay and the Apple Watch (among other things).

Cue the breathless proclamations that Apple has turned the wearable devices category on its head. Hyperbole aside, the Apple Watch hasn’t even been released yet, nor is it available for pre-order, so making such pronouncements is premature at best.

Apple has met tremendous success with the release of the iPod, iPhone, and iPad. That situation is not up for debate. What is up for debate is the Apple Watch’s chances for joining its larger, older brethren. It is my opinion that the Apple Watch, like other wearables before it, will not put a watch on everyone’s wrist like the iPhone put a smartphone in everyone’s pocket. (I couldn’t resist that hyperbole)


When it finally releases, the Apple Watch will retail for $349. However, there’s no indication of what that dollar amount will include. Will it include just the (smaller) watch and a basic band? Or will it include either size watch and a band of your choice? Or just the watch but no band whatsoever? Keep in mind that there are two different size watches, 3 different types of watch, and a large assortment of bands for the offing.

Thus, while the Apple Watch no doubt has the same build quality as previous Apple products, that means it’s also a premium product. I imagine that it will bring the thought of owning a watch into the minds of many people who normally don’t wear a watch, but they have to choke down the $349 (minimum) price tag to do it.


Couple that price with the fact that watches in that price range are designed to last a considerable amount of time. Personally, I have owned my titanium Citizen watch for 4 years and it still works flawlessly, has nary a scratch on it, and I paid $350 for it. Plus it never needs a battery.

In contrast, a smart watch, like a smart phone, becomes obsolete because its hardware cannot support the increasing demands of its software (an unfortunate corollary to Moore’s law). Most people replace their phones after 16 months, does Apple expect them to do the same with their watch? Keep in mind that the Apple Watch won’t be subsidized like the iPhone.


The biggest hurdle that the Apple Watch can’t get over (like all smart watches), is it’s designed to work with a companion smart phone. The phone is what is really doing the heavy lifting as far as processing and sensor calculations go. This enables the watch to be lighter and cheaper, but that also means it requires a smart phone to function! If you don’t own a compatible iPhone, you can’t use an Apple Watch because it won’t work without a compatible iPhone.

This is the area that the Apple Watch is most different from its sister Apple i-devices. You can use an iPhone without an iPod or an iPad. This fact alone limits its sales potential because it’s only a companion device. This isn’t just an issue with the Apple Watch, although it’s the most high profile device to have this issue; it’s an issue with all wearables.

As I wrote earlier, the masses would be better served through companion devices (watches, glasses, in-car infotainment systems) that are device agnostic. While that hurts the short-term profits of companies that enter this space with companion products, it also would be the revolution that was the iPhone, iPad, and iPod.

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Aug 14

A Bridge to Cars

Smartphone OS Tentacles

Recently, there have been major pushes by the makers of smartphone OSes (most notably Google and Apple) into extending their software’s connectivity to other devices. The most commonly cited example is wearables, such as the oft-cited though still vaporware iWatch and the underwhelming Galaxy Gear. Slightly less well known, though no less important, is the push by Apple and Google into the automotive infotainment space through CarPlay and Android Auto respectively.

Both “standards” are designed to provide virtually the same functionality: hands-free calling, turn-by-turn navigation, SMS functionality, and music streaming through a set of pre-approved and heavily curated services and apps. I call them “standards” because they are really just proprietary layers that only operate within the respective Google or Apple ecosystem.

The current incarnation of automotive infotainment systems are mostly driven by the various bluetooth protocols. While bluetooth is certainly capable of information transfer (there are more than 20 bluetooth protocols), it’s not designed to be a high bandwidth platform. As a result, automakers have started to look elsewhere to expand infotainment system capabilities.

Moreover, since the infotainment system is mostly outside of what automakers excel at (i.e. making automobiles), it stands to reason that they would be interested in outsourcing this functionality as much as possible to someone who is a subject matter expert. Enter Google and Apple, who are more than happy to supplant the vendor-specific infotainment systems that exist today with something a bit more standard, although still vendor-specific.

Apple and Google both announced their “solutions” to the “in-car infotainment” problem to much fanfare and also announced a set of partners that overlaps heavily (both carmarkers and aftermarket parts suppliers). We also know that Apple’s CarPlay will only work with Apple iOS (version 7.1 and later and only on the iPhone 5 and later) and Google’s Android Auto will only work with Google’s Android operating system (version L and later).

The Issue with Vendor Lock-In

These developments bring about several new pain points for consumers. The first is that if a consumer buys a car, they now have to purchase an infotainment system specific to their current choice in phone. Conversely, carmakers could include both infotainment experiences (CarPlay and Android Auto) in a single system. Since these capabilities are not compatible, a driver would essentially be paying for an infotainment system that their device can only be partially compatible with. That’s not to speak of families who all own different phones (like mine) where the situation would be even worse.

The second pain point is that this pushes us farther down the road of vendor lock in. If a consumer buys a car with CarPlay because she currently owns an iPhone, she would have to purchase a new iPhone upon replacing her current iPhone for it to continue to work with her car’s infotainment system. The same would be true with Android phones.

While the second point is exactly what Apple and Google want, it’s incredibly anti-consumer and short-sighted. It also presents the issue of support. Most people keep their cars for 4.75 years while the typical smartphone lasts around 16 months. With the pace of smartphone innovation, it’s entirely within the realm of possibility that after those 4.75 years are up, the latest smartphones (which the average consumer will have upgraded 3-4 times) may not support the car’s proprietary capabilities; severely damaging the resale value.

We Need a Better Solution

Rather than vendors who have a vested interest in working alone to tailor a solution that only works on their latest OSes, we need a single, open solution collaborated on by all of the big players in the automotive market (automakers, aftermarket vendors, and smartphone companies). Such a solution may potentially exist in MirrorLink, which leverages open standards to surface a phone’s user interface and provides much of the same functionality as Android Auto and CarPlay, but it’s not proprietary.

Why is an open, standard solution a better way forward? Firstly, the dominant smartphone in one market is not necessarily the dominant smartphone somewhere else. While Google’s Android largely owns the smartphone market worldwide, there are plenty of places where the iPhone has a large market share as well (i.e. the United States). Secondly, if the two companies refuse to work together, consumers end up with vendor-specific solutions that have the potential to hamper adoption. In addition, by limiting the selection of apps that function with a car’s infotainment system, innovation is stymied for both interface design and application development. New players can’t enter the market against established brands because they’ll be unlikely to get over the hurdle posed by the certifications, especially if they compete directly with an existing, certified service or app.

Instead, a system that allows developers to smartly tap into the car’s infotainment system through the smartphone OS in a standardized way (i.e. the same on iOS and Android), while still pulling the cues for interface design from the OS, provides a better way forward for everyone. A way that doesn’t tie your watch or your glasses or your car to your current choice in phone.

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May 14

Developing for the Shareable Internet

When we think about developing web pages for mobile and desktop use, we often think of making sure that if a user comes to our desktop site on a mobile device we redirect them to the so-called mobile-friendly view instead. This is because we’ve spent a lot of time, treasure, and energy tailoring our mobile-friendly sites to mobile devices. They often have controls tailored to touch input, fewer images, and rely on the width of the viewport to wrap content. We make sure that a user landing on our desktop sites with mobile devices are redirected. However, we don’t pay a whole lot of thought to interactions between users which often causes the opposite case to happen. With the advent of the "Shareable" Internet, we’re increasingly going to need to.

What is the "Shareable" Internet?

If you’ve ever posted a link on Facebook or Twitter or sent someone a link via text message or email then you are a part of the "Shareable" Internet. The Internet thrives on sharing content, concepts, and ideas between users. That’s why it was created after all! Gone are the days when it was a single user consuming and interacting with just content. Now users are interacting (i.e. sharing) with each other.

I’ll get back to an issue the actual sharing raises for developers in a moment. First, I want to talk about where the shared links are coming from. There was an article on CNN Money a few months ago that said U.S. internet usage by mobile devices has surpassed desktop usage for the first time. What are people doing on their mobile devices? They’re consuming content and, because this is what the Internet (note the capital I) is built for, they’re sharing that content anywhere and everywhere from their mobile device.

If a website has a mobile-friendly view and a desktop view, and you’re on a mobile device, you’re likely on the mobile-friendly view. If you then share that page’s URL with your Twitter followers or your Facebook friends or whomever else via the built-in sharing functionality of your device, you’re going to be sharing the mobile-friendly URL (with a few caveats). If I then click on that link from my laptop, I’m going to be taken to the mobile-friendly URL and (without desktop browser detection or Responsive Web Design) I’m going to see the mobile-friendly page, which will likely look horrible on my desktop browser (think no margins, tiny images, and poor page flow).

Below is an example of what I’m talking about. The site uses mobile-browser detection to redirect to a mobile-friendly site if you’re on a phone, but there’s no redirection for the desktop site if you go to the same URL (which is what would have been shared).


What Should We Do?

This is obviously sub-optimal. So what should we, as developers, do to keep the "Shareable" Internet (big I again) humming smoothly? At a minimum we should be directing a desktop user to the desktop version of our site if they somehow end up on the mobile-friendly site. There are also design practices (i.e. Responsive Web Design) that can help combat this by avoiding browser redirection entirely. The approach your site takes doesn’t matter as long as you get your desktop users where they belong when they link to a mobile-friendly page. Simply leaving them on the mobile view without a way back is not an option if you want to keep users happy.

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